To produce hydrogen, energy sources are required; therefore, we offer cooperation in accessing zero-emission energy, which ensures that hydrogen is classified as ‘green.’ We are involved in several projects aimed at building a complete value chain for green hydrogen.

Hydrogen is the simplest chemical element in the periodic table of elements, with the symbol H and atomic number 1, meaning it has just one proton in its nucleus. It is also the lightest of all chemical elements, existing as a gas at standard temperature and pressure (0°C and 1 atm). It is the only element that, under normal atmospheric conditions, exists as a gas and is approximately 14 times lighter than air. Hydrogen is highly reactive chemically, forming numerous chemical compounds including water (H2O) in reaction with oxygen and organic compounds in reactions with other elements and compounds. Hydrogen can be used across various sectors as it is a high-energy fuel (33 kWh/kg), making it a significant competitor to battery technologies.

In direct comparison to batteries, where their energy density ranges around 250-260 Wh/kg, hydrogen as a leader has about 125 times greater energy density per kg. Introducing hydrogen technology allows for a smooth reduction in the economy’s emissions. Countries on all continents are continuously striving to find new alternatives for climate-neutral technology development. The European Union has set a goal to achieve complete climate neutrality by 2050; capturing and storing the same amount of greenhouse gases as is released into the atmosphere. This is an entirely achievable goal, considering how rapidly technology develops nowadays, and if effective and yielding proper results, is implemented immediately.

Hydrogen can be applied in transport, industry, and energy sectors. As an energy carrier, it can store large amounts of energy (33 kWh/kg), and where battery technologies fail, such as covering long-term deficits of electrical energy in the transmission system, hydrogen serves as an ideal alternative. Stored hydrogen, whether in storage tanks or the gas system, can then be converted back into electrical energy in combination with oxygen using fuel cell technology.

Hydrogen is becoming a very optimistic solution to the challenges of the new climate policy “New Green Deal” and the increasing aspirations to use only green energy and eliminate fossil fuels completely. Hydrogen can play a significant role in new energy policies as a green and sustainable energy source that helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions, diversify energy sources, and develop modern technologies.

Here are a few aspects in which hydrogen can be incorporated into new energy policies:

  • Hydrogen Fuel: Hydrogen can be used as hydrogen fuel in fuel cells, which generate electrical energy through the electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen. Fuel cells are efficient, effective, and produce only clean water as a by-product, making them environmentally friendly. Implementing hydrogen vehicles and the infrastructure for producing and distributing hydrogen can help reduce CO2 emissions in transport.
  • Energy Storage: Hydrogen can serve as an energy carrier that enables the storage of excess electrical energy from renewable sources such as solar and wind. Hydrogen can be produced during periods of surplus energy and later used to generate electricity during shortages, helping to balance the use of renewable sources.
  • Decarbonization of Industry: Hydrogen can be used in industrial processes, such as steel and ammonia production, to replace conventional hydrogen sources based on fossil fuels. This “green” hydrogen can help reduce CO2 emissions from the industrial sector.
  • Public Transport: Hydrogen can be used in public transportation vehicles, such as buses, trains, and hydrogen taxis. Promoting the development and implementation of these vehicles can contribute to reducing emissions in the transport sector.
  • Research and Development: Investment in research and development related to hydrogen is crucial for developing new production, storage, and utilization technologies. New energy policies can support research projects and innovations related to hydrogen.

Low-emission Hydrogen: Low-emission hydrogen will be useful in a low-carbon world as both an energy carrier and where end-use applications are too difficult or expensive to electrify. In this regard, hydrogen plays a key role in modeled scenarios for a zero-emission future.

Countries are planning pathways to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions that rely on clean hydrogen, leading to growing interest in investments worldwide. Potential producers see an economic opportunity in exporting clean hydrogen. Potential consumers recognize the benefits of decarbonization and energy security. However, globally, interest is only beginning to translate into investments.

Regional innovation clusters, typically including universities, laboratories, research parks, incubators, and production centers, have long supported economic growth, job creation, and competitiveness. Geographically concentrating innovative activity, even within a common center or research park, can facilitate collaboration and information exchange among scientists, engineers, and companies. With proper incentives, it is possible to coordinate their research efforts to share expensive equipment and provide complementary resources.

A hydrogen hub is a principal user of green hydrogen, which will utilize renewable electrical energy from the grid to produce appropriate supplies of green hydrogen through an electrolyzer and store this hydrogen in high-pressure tanks. The storage facility can have several functions:

  • The electrolyzer can be sized based on average demand rather than peak demand,
  • Storing potentially separates production and usage, allowing the electrolyzer to use the cheapest renewable electricity available when it is available,
  • Stored hydrogen can be used as a backup in case of a power supply interruption.

The electrolyzer, storage, and primary application will need to be optimized for the most economically beneficial outcome.

In addition to satisfying the primary application of the main user, the hydrogen hub can supply hydrogen to applications of nearby, smaller users and profit from it.

A hydrogen hub encompasses all the infrastructure needed for hydrogen production. This includes:

  • Hydrogen production facilities – electrolyzers,
  • Logistic infrastructure, distribution infrastructure.

The size and type of facilities included in the hubs depend on the source from which the hydrogen is derived.